This work aims to conduct a new analysis of paideia, taking into account the new social demands which question education. To this end, it is divided into two parts, reflecting two macrocategories: the first (Educational Communication, Ethics and Sustainability) enables us to investigate the epistemological foundations of pedagogical science, the ethical dimension of educational communication and the issue of sustainability, with attention to the new scenarios which are emerging in contemporary times; the second (Inclusive Education and Childhood between Competences and Rights) presents a heuristic look which is more oriented toward an inclusive educational practice, family and school contexts (such as open and active systems), as well as the topic of childhood, interpreted in the light of a multicultural and globalized society. Overall, a shortlist of topics was chosen, with the aim of capturing a number of significant paths that respond to the theoretical and praxical needs of the present time. Hence the need to relaunch the model of paideia, in order to restore the implementation of educational processes centered on dialogicity and moral autonomy. These are traits that cannot but concern pedagogical theory/practice (since they are constitutive of it). The Authors’ commitment has been to restore strength to the concept of paideia, turning the heuristic interest to a precise pedagogical-educational instance: to reflect on the possibility of restoring meaning to the various experiential spheres, which constitute the vital spaces within which a person is called to think/act; spheres (family, school, play, technological dimensions, etc.) which, far from being disconnected from each other, are to be correlated (in a systemic perspective) precisely in the name of that harmony (of Platonic memory) which the whole of human life requires and which the paideia itself needs in order to be fully realized.